Religion & Philosophy
Judaic Dietary Laws - Kashrut - clear rules with no explanation for them has fostered debate for at least 2000 years.
Islamic Dietary Laws - Inspired by the Jewish laws, but significantly different, and with some explanation.
Buddhist Dietary Customs - an offshoot of Hinduism and Jainism.
Hindu Dietary Customs - 4000 years old and a subcontinent in size - uniformity is too much to expect.
Jain Dietary Customs - ancient and influential.
Christian Dietary Customs - Not particularly strict.
Vegan - Rejection on ethical grounds not only of all animal derived foods but all animal derived products whatever.
Health & Longevity
Celiac & Gluten Free Celiac - (gluten intolerance) is a serious disorder that requires a totally gluten free diet. "Gluten Free" is also a fad diet promoted for non-celiacs because it is high profit potential.
Diabetes A serious condition where the body does not automatically control its blood sugar level, so that control has to be applied "by hand". Diet is a major part of the control strategy.
Vegetarian The traditional diet of a large part of the world's population, and increasingly popular in the U.S., for a variety of reasons. More extreme forms of vegetarians includ Fruitarians and Vegans.
Mediterranean A modern adaption of the traditional diet of the European coast of the Mediterranean, including Southern Italy, Greece and the islands.
Paleolithic Based on the natural diet of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, but modernized to be more practical for those of us who don't spend the day wandering around with a sharp stick.
Heart-Healthy Diet This name is most associated with the American Heart Association and its recommendations.
Macrobiotic With strict rules and prohibitions and an Oriental mystique the macrobiotic lifestyle has attracted a significant following of adherents and true believers. Claims that a macrobiotic diet can cure cancer and AIDS are somewhat controversial.
Raw Foods One of the most extreme and idealistic diets.
Commercial & Weight Loss Diets